Real Casino Roulette Strategy

Another popular roulette strategy is reverse Martingale, also known as Mayer’s reverse technique. It is similar to the previous strategy, with one major difference - the amount is increased after a win.

  1. Players have tried to devise roulette betting systems to even the scale, but there's no roulette strategy that can beat the casino advantage. Does progressive betting on roulette work? Some players put their faith in progressive betting systems, but these strategies don't guarantee success at roulette.
  2. Roulette Strategies for Earning Money. While there still hasn’t been a strategy designed that will beat the roulette game and guarantee that you’ll win every hand, there are ways you can bet smart and be able to come out on top if you’re in for the long haul. But wikihow.com gives us information about practice Roulette Strategies.
  3. The casinos know roulette is being beaten, and they know professional roulette strategy players are a real threat. But they rely on detecting professional players before they win.

A roulette strategy has one aim and one aim only: to win. Most roulette strategies are based around telling players how they should bet and when to bet it. The game of roulette has more potential strategies than any other casino game.

However, most roulette players lose because the strategies they use are tailored towards promotions, rather than actual tips that can help them win.

This article will explain which roulette strategies work and show why others do not.

But first, it’s important to understand the basics of roulette strategy. A lot of roulette players believe in absolute nonsense.

Here are 10 common misconceptions about the roulette strategy.

Youtube Roulette Strategy

1. Previous Spins Do Not Affect Future Spins

No matter how many times you spin the wheel, the chances that the ball landing on one number/color/etc remain the same every time. You can see this for yourself. Load up an online roulette wheel and play some spins for free. Record the results of red and black and try and spot some streaks. If you find one, check how many times that color spins next. After enough spins, you will find that the odds will not have changed at all. Previous spins do not affect future spins.

2. Progression Bets Do Not Help You Win In Roulette

Changing your bet size after each bet is called “progression”. Increasing your bet size is known as “positive progression”. Likewise, decreasing your bet size is known as “negative progression”.

No matter if it’s positive or negative, changing your bet size has no impact on your chances of winning.

Many roulette players wait for some sort of ‘trigger’ before implementing a betting progression strategy. One example could be waiting for black to win 3 times in a row. From here, the player would double the bet until they win.

This will not help the player win. Each spin is independent of the next and the odds have not changed since the last spin.

The only thing that is changing is the amount of money wagered. Sure, the player could be lucky and win big, but it’s just as likely they can be unlucky and lose big too.

3. Roulette Triggers Don’t Exist

Waiting for a certain event to happen does not impact your chances of winning in roulette. The only ‘trigger’ that can help you is if it is related to the physical wheel itself, rather than the sequence of numbers.

For example, if you decide to bet the number 3 after noticing that over 10,000 spins it wins at a higher percentage, then this is called bias analysis. This would make sense since there must be something about the wheel that causes the number 3 to win more often than other numbers.

Money

On the other hand, waiting for the sequence red, black, black, black and then betting big on red does not affect your chances of winning.

Another trigger players like to use is skipping spins. Again, this does not win in the long-term.

Imagine that over the course of 500 spins, you only bet on 50 ie 10% and you manage to make a profit. This does not mean your ‘trigger’ means anything. All that’s really happened is that you won over the course of 50 spins.

4. Bankroll Management Does Not Help In Roulette

Bankroll management has two effects on roulette strategy: you either lose your money quicker (ie positive progression) or slower (ie negative progression).

All bankroll management does is control how much you should bet on each spin. Again, it comes down to the fact that bet sizing has no impact on your chances of winning.

5. Long Term Balance Does Not Exist In Roulette

After 5,000 spins of the wheel, the results of red or black will be close to even. Therefore, it seems reasonable to think that over the long term, you could check what color has spun the most and bet on the other one, right?

Not really. If there are more of one color than the other, then this is more because of a defect in the wheel. Therefore, if your roulette strategy was to bet on red because it had fewer wins than black, it would actually be a lot better to bet on black as the wheel is favored towards it.

6. Only Bet Short-Term Roulette Strategies

Lots of roulette strategies aim to make a 1-unit profit per session. Unless your units are in hundreds or thousands, it’s not enough to make a real difference anyway

But for the sake of argument, let’s assume that winning 1 unit a session is the be-all and end-all for winning roulette.

Now think of it like this: if it guarantees to win 1 unit a session, wouldn’t you want to use it all the time? After all, if it’s that good, why limit yourself to just 1 unit?

The answer is that short-term strategies do not work for roulette. They can either win over the long-term or they don’t. Either way, the house always has the edge.

7. Roulette Streaks Make No Difference To Your Chances Of Winning

Sometimes in roulette, the ball will land on the same number twice, three times or more in a row. This isn’t some freaky wizardry, it’s simple statistics.

On an American roulette wheel, the odds of spinning the same number three times in a row can be calculated by:

(1 in 38) x (1 in 38) x (1 in 38) = 1 in 54,872

But what about the odds of spinning the same number twice in a row, say 5, but then landing on a different number, say 7?

Since every spin is independent of the previous, spin, the chances are exactly the same as above: 1 in 54,872.

So it makes no logical sense to think that if one number is on a winning streak, it’s in your favor to bet it again.

This also applies to other roulette bets, including red or black, first, second, or third dozen, etc.

8. You Can’t Use Progression To Win Before A “Rare Event” Happens”

Once again, this comes down to the fact the odds do not change. Rare events do not exist in roulette. The only reason players think they do is because they have not seen enough spins for it to have happened yet.

For example, the player may not have seen this sequence of winning numbers before: 1,4,6,2,5. But they may also have never seen this sequence of winning numbers before either: 12, 25, 14, 9, 0.

After enough spins, both of these sequences will happen at some point. With a large enough sample size, you will see that they will also occur the same number of times too.

Each sequence of winning numbers in roulette is just as rare as each other.

9. Just Because A Roulette Strategy Wins Doesn’t Guarantee It Works

Roulette betting strategies either win in the long term or they don’t, it’s as simple as that. For example, if you decide to use a negative progression strategy after losing a few bets, the end result remains a loss.

On the other hand, you could wait for “triggers” before using an aggressive betting strategy and win big. Of course, you will not be making as many bets as the progression strategy, meaning you can make your bankroll last for, potentially, thousands of spins.

Now, just because you may have won big does not mean that the system you used was a good one. If you analyze this in more detail, you will likely see multiple large spikes in your bankroll.

To see how ‘good’ this system really is, find a reliable roulette system tester and create another one with completely random bets. Over 10,000, 20,000 or even 50,000 spins, you may find that betting randomly can be profitable.

Does this mean that the random selection process is a winning strategy that works? Of course not.

You will have just been lucky.

It’s easy to think that you have a winning strategy when all that happened was that you got lucky from time to time. This happens to a lot of players.

Luck can even make losing strategies profitable. Those using it may stop playing roulette and end with a profit, making them believe the strategy was effective.

Over time though, if they continue playing, reality will catch up and the system will lose.

10. Winning Most Of The Time In Roulette Is Enough

Imagine you had a roulette strategy that won 75% of the time. Over the course of 4 days, you profit on 3 and lose on 1. Your results may be something like:

Day 1: +10 units

Day 2: +20 units

Day 3: +50 units

Day 4: -100 units

Everything was going so well until something happened that you didn’t expect and you lost big. How did this happen? You just got unlucky, right?

Except that you didn’t. Casinos don’t leave it up to chance to make money. In the end, the house wins because of its long-term edge over players.

Winning Systems: The Casino’s Illusion

Casinos profit because they know the majority of players can’t tell the difference between a winning roulette strategy and a losing one. Here’s an example that shows how this can happen.

Imagine 100 players all played roulette and used exactly the same strategy as each other, but none of them knew each other or the systems each of them were using.

After using the strategy over the course of 1 month, these were the results:

40 of the players won a total of $400,000. Since they all won, they are sure that their strategy wins. Since they believe they have a winning strategy, they will return to the casino hoping to win more money.

The remaining 60 players lost a total of $500,000. Since they all lost, they are sure their system loses. Since they believe they have a losing strategy, they will look to improve it before returning to the casino again with a new system.

But none of this matters.

At the end of the day, the casino is the real winner.

Firstly, they have made a $100,000 profit from this group of 100 players.

They also have the winning players coming back, even though it’s not a long-term profitable strategy, as shown by the 60 losing players.

Sure, they may have initially paid out $400,000, but to the casino, it’s like an investment. They pay out with the expectation the players return and bet the same strategy – only this time, the players will lose.

Casinos don’t care about winners or losers; they just need more people to lose than to win.

How To Win At Roulette

So now that the important things have been covered, it’s time to learn how to win at roulette.

Real Casino Roulette Strategy Real Money

On a typical American roulette wheel, your chances of picking the right number are 1 in 38.

The only way is to improve your own chances of winnings. If you don’t, the odds remain in favor of the casino.

How do you do this?

By studying the thing that actually determines the result of a spin: the wheel and the ball.

But this isn’t brand new information to casinos. They know better than anyone how players can use the roulette wheel to give them a real advantage.

Losing Roulette Strategies

So by now, you should understand why a lot of strategies lose. They use a ‘trigger’ that doesn’t exist, they implement some form of bet progression or they focus on the numbers rather than the roulette wheel and ball.

The following section will show you some of the best-known roulette strategies. However, they all lose in the long-term. From everything discussed so far, you will see why they lose now too.

The Martingale Strategy

Martingale is a betting progression strategy. If you lose a bet, you must double it for the next one.

This is not a good strategy for multiple reasons:

  1. If you go on a bad run using martingale, you can lose your bankroll quickly.
  2. After lots of doubles, you will reach the maximum bet amount. Even if it wins, you may not be able to recoup your losses.
  3. The odds do not change when you double the size of your bet. All that’s happening is changing your bet on a different spin.

Tier et Tout Strategy

This is another betting progression strategy but with bankroll management included too.

Like the martingale, no matter how many times you increase or decrease the size of your bet, the chances of winning never change. The only thing you are doing is making different bets of different sizes.

You are just as likely to win (or lose) making a random bet of a random size.

John Solitude Raindrop Strategy

This roulette strategy uses the balance misconception. It expects to win ‘in the end’ but this does not work because it won’t allow you to choose bets in a way that actually improves your chances of winning.

These are just a selection of losing strategies by there are countless others out there, each claiming to be the next thing since sliced bread. But they all share the same misconceptions of roulette strategy.

You may also find strategies that may sound different at first but they are actually exactly the same as other losing systems.

You must be aware of this before learning which strategies you should actually be using.

Winning Roulette Strategies

Many roulette players use strategies that do not work. Unfortunately, many people are losing because they have been convinced that it is a winning roulette strategy.

Everything that this article has covered so far should help you identify a losing system, should you come across one. Hopefully, you will never need to waste another penny again.

Now for the good news.

Here are the best winning roulette strategies.

Roulette Computers

These are small electronic devices that can measure the speed of the wheel and the ball as it travels. This predicts where the ball will land.

This is the most effective way to beat roulette.

Bear in mind though that, while they’re not illegal, if you get caught using them, you will probably get banned from the casino so keep them hidden as much as possible.

Visual Ballistics

This involves looking at the wheel with your own eyes to predict where the ball lands. With practice, it becomes a lot easier than you may think (but a lot tougher compared to other effective winning roulette strategies.)

Dealer’s Signature

A lot of roulette dealers spin the wheel and ball consistently, leading to predictable patterns. This is known as the ‘dealer’s signature’ and is the reason why they are changed every 30 minutes or so.

It works on the following principles:

  1. The ball hits some diamonds more often than others ie dominant diamonds.
  2. The ball bounce is not totally unpredictable.

When the wheel spins at, near enough, the same speed, the ball will travel a predictable distance and drop into a predictable area of the wheel.

Keep in mind that this strategy doesn’t work on every wheel though. You need to find the right wheel and the right dealer to get the most from this strategy.

Bias Analysis

Every single roulette wheel has some sort of defect. Even if it’s a tiny defect, it can affect how the ball lands.

This is known as bias.

If you can spot the defect and learn how it affects the results, you can profit from roulette.

Of course, this strategy relies on you spotting the defect before the casino does and removes it from play.

Details
Roulette is the most recognized casino symbol that is gaining momentum every year. It is not surprising that roulette has been so popular in the gaming world since its invention. Luxury, passion, and simple rules are the most important advantages of this type of game. These advantages win over both new and old players.

Also, roulette is perhaps the most mysterious type of gambling. Why is it so? The mystery of the game lies in the following fact: it is still unknown when exactly and where the roulette game appeared. Most versions agree that France can be considered as the birthplace of this game, which appeared approximately in the second half of the 17th century.

Thus, roulette was invented about 4 centuries ago and remains one of the most beloved games to this day. As a result, any decent online casino site or its mobile app counterpart includes roulette in the list of available games to meet the demands of all avid gamblers. In this article, you will get familiar with some of the most popular online casinos roulette bets, as well as the best strategies to win.

General Information

Roulette is a platform in the form of a rotating wheel, which has a certain number of sectors. The number of sectors depends on the type of roulette. There are such types of roulette as American, French, and European; each of them has its own set of peculiarities, though the basic principle remains the same. Take, for example, 37 sectors numbered from “zero” to “36” in European roulette. If you compare it with the American variation which has an additional double zero pocket, you will notice that the chance of winning is higher when playing European roulette. Remember one simple nuance: the fewer sectors in roulette, the greater odds of winning.

The betting table is divided into 2 parts: external and internal. The internal part is intended for bets on single numbers or groups of up to 6 numbers. They are next to each other in the rate table. The external part of the table is used for bets on high or low numbers, odd or even, red or black.

You can place a bet on any number or group of numbers using external and internal bets. It is important to remember that any outside bet must not be less than the smallest bet for the table. The same is true of a sum of all internal bets. External and internal bets are made independently of each other. Thus, the smallest condition must be met for them. If your bet wins, the original bet is returned to your account. Thus, you get a win depending on what you bet on. If your bet loses, then you, accordingly, lose it.

Roulette at Land-Based Casinos vs Online Casino Roulette

Any gambling fan who has played roulette in land-based and online casinos can attest to one fact. Even though the general concept of the game and the structure of the bets are the same… there are still some differences. They must be taken into account to have a general idea of how these systems are built. So, we will provide you with the main differences and you, in turn, conclude.

Live Dealer vs Random Number Generator

When you play roulette at an online casino, you are usually in competition with one thing: it is the random number generator. Its essence of work is very simple — the program randomly selects numbers. The player has no way of predicting which number will come up next because of such a program. A lucky number of the roulette is impossible to predict (unless you are some genius).

The random number generator is used not only in roulette. It is also employed in other online casino games.

Factors in Real Life vs Program

Have you ever watched the dealer spin the wheel? Some do it slightly, while others put in more effort .. As a matter of fact, speed plays an important role. More than that, the whole success of the game may depend on it. If a player closely watches such little things during the game, then he will be able to predict anything. That is, he might foresee which number the ball will land on with a high probability. Yet, the same dealer will not play with you throughout the game. As a rule, employees change each other every half hour.

Apart from that, experienced players tend to pay attention to the wheel itself. It may sound strange, but the look of the wheel plays a role, too. Nothing is perfect in this world, and defects can be seen everywhere. Small defects in a casino wheel can cause a small ball to hit some numbered pockets more often than others. This pattern can only be noticed instantly by experienced players. Unfortunately, you cannot track this in the online world.

Live Play vs Clear Graphics

This is the most obvious distinguishing feature that confuses many players. On the one hand, you want to enjoy a real game surrounded by opponents. Even a person who doesn’t understand gambling wants to experience such emotions. Still, why do you need to go somewhere if you can enjoy the game while sitting in front of your computer? Nowadays, there are plenty of high-quality games looking so realistic that you just can’t help playing them.

Etiquette vs Its Complete Absence

Etiquette rules are everywhere. Gamblers must adhere to them, too — when they are playing in land-based casinos. For example, a player cannot argue with the dealer. The clothing style also falls into this category. So, there is an alternative for players who are averse to looking formal. Just imagine: cosy clothes, favourite food, comfortable posture, no restrictions .. This is how the online life of gamblers looks like.

Strategies for Roulette Table Bets

Strategies are divided into mathematical, productive, and mixed. Mathematical ones suggest the most effective betting position on the roulette table. This is not only mathematics but also the observance of special rules. Scoring ones are accepted based on certain results of the spins. Here, systems of raising or lowering rates are most often used. The specific rate which will be used depends on the situation. A mixed type is the use of several methods at the same time. These methods together are aimed at improving the result of the game. There are no specific rules. Each player uses his best roulette bet combinations.

Top Roulette Betting Strategies to Adopt

It's not a secret that every player wants to try their luck and win. Everyone strives to find the best way to bet on roulette. A properly selected online roulette strategy allows you to maximize the player's advantage. Don’t forget that the roulette game is not only a game with mathematical strategies. This is a kind of luck or the complete opposite of this term.

We cannot ignore the fact that having strategies and changing them has an impact on the game. Someone will be lucky, while others will lose all their money due to neglect. You better plot your own strategy in advance, and not just to commence thinking when launching the game. Besides, your strategies should depend on the available funds. The willingness to take risks can also be critical. It will bring either luck or failure.

That is why, in our opinion, it is better to conclude the game. If you are still thinking about using a strategy, then take note of the following:

  • Parlay strategy;
  • D'Alembert strategy;

These strategies are best known among casino players. Despite the spontaneity of the game, they often lead to success. Let's take a look at each of them separately.

  • Martingale Strategy

The first strategy has historical evidence. It turns out that before the invention of roulette, this system was successfully used. It was used by many people in the games existing at that time. Its essence lies in the fact that the player places bets only on red numbers, for example, or only on even numbers. If the player wins, then he takes the winnings to his bank. He makes the next bet, which is equal to the base one. That is, the bet is made on the same position. If the player loses, then the bet is placed in the same position. The player doubles the size.

  • Parlay Strategy

The second strategy is simple to install. Its main goal is to double the rate with each step. This must be done until it reaches a predetermined amount. Then the game starts over.

  • D'Alembert Strategy

The third strategy is to raise or lower the rate by one unit. For example, you placed the smallest bet that led to a win. This means that the next bet will be the same for this strategy.

  • Fibonacci Strategy

The last strategy on our list involves using a number series. This sequence is constructed as follows. You need to add the two previous numbers to get the new sequence number. It starts with number one. For example, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5.. You also need to start with the smallest bets. This is necessary to get the largest number of steps before reaching the upper limit of the rates.

Myths Concerning Roulette Betting Strategies

Of course, such a field is abundant in numerous myths and old wives’ tales. Likewise, even some really useful strategies can be misused, which may lead to quite unpleasant situations. So let’s figure it out!

Hot and Cold Numbers Betting

There is an interesting myth related to betting on cold and hot numbers. Cold numbers are those that the player has never received during the game. Hot numbers, respectively, come up more often than others. Now let's speak of the myth itself. Its essence lies in the following fact. One part of the players bet on cold numbers only because they haven’t come up during the game. They have a kind of hope that this number will drop out right now. Also, there is another category of players. They think hot numbers are not lucky, and these are just special numbers that the roulette wheel can memorize.

For better or worse, this is a myth, in which many players perhaps want to believe. Any matches are possible, but let's look objectively at online casinos. All combinations in the game drop out randomly — they are independent of any factors. If you rely on those stories, you can lose your money.

Yet, many software vendors have created special games that indicate hot and cold numbers, despite the absurdity. It helps players to keep track of the gameplay statistics even better. This innovation works as a hint, and it's rather helpful.

But don't forget that the casino is not an exact science that can be learned. There is no clear outline of which number will come up next. Any cold number can suddenly become a hot one and vice versa. This is a kind of endless loop that can lead to different outcomes of the gameplay.

Roulette Strategy Tips

A Red/Black Strategy

One of the most famous strategies we've had to mention. Its essence lies in the fact that the player constantly bets on red (or black). He doubles his bet with each loss until he wins. Then he starts all over again.

At first glance, the strategy seems to be almost safe for many players. Many beginners do think so. Still, this strategy is one of the most dangerous. What is its danger? You are playing at a very short distance which can lead to drastic changes. For example, you’ve made 10 bets on black, and all the hits were red. If the player keeps on doubling his bet, then his loss will turn out to be extremely large in the end. So be careful when making use of this strategy.

There is a similar stake called “Odd / Even bet”. Its main difference from the previous bet consists only in one thing. The player bets on whether the winning number will be odd or even. Only 2 choices are given, which can be decisive or give a push forward.

Multiple Number Bets

Let’s talk about multiple number bets and what they give. Each player strives to find the best numbers to bet on roulette. Someone is thinking about placing a bet on a row of three numbers. Another player wants to make a corner bet on four numbers — or thinks about as many as 5 numbers. You probably got confused in your head when you thought about how many similar rates there are. The rates that we mentioned above are quite widely used in casinos. Let's take each of them separately.

Real Casino Roulette Strategy No Deposit

A bet on a row of three numbers includes 3 different numbers that will be used in the game. You must place a chip on the outside line of the selected horizontal row or three numbers for a straight bet. Thus, a bet of 3 numbers will be received.

Used casino blackjack tables. It should be noted that each player can choose between 15 possible combinations of bets on these numbers.

A corner bet on 4 numbers is not a hard concept to envision: placing your chips on a square of 4 connected numbers on the playing field. But due to the pure randomness of the results in Roulette, we can agree that there are only 2 conceivable outcomes - win or lose. So, placing bets can vary, and with it the odds, and the expected payouts. All possibilities could be calculated in regard to 37 (European & French), or 38 (American) possible outcomes per single spin.

Now let’s proceed to the myth itself, or rather, an improper understanding of a bet on five numbers, which is likely to interest all players at the beginning of the gaming way. Only experienced people realize that it is better not to use this type. Why do they think so? Everything is very simple. The casino has a lot more edge on this bet. It exceeds the usual 5.26%.

Roulette Casino Games

Player’s Mistakes That You Should Consider

This section will be useful for both new and avid players. Let's start with the most obvious psychological component of every person. Yes, you're right, it's about emotions. Emotions are such a trait that can both ruin something and be beneficial. Emotions are considered to be one of the most common reasons for failure in online casinos. This is the most obvious fact that is ignored. For example, a player loses every bet. Emotions are at the limit, the desire to win grows, and the money goes away. What is the end? Such a person will either fail or succeed. As statistics show, failure is most often expected when a person is too emotional. If you are also an emotional person, then set limits for yourself. Limits are what help you to control the game better.

The second most common mistake is learning with real games or not learning at all. Luck still exists and can appear at any moment, but you must not forget about some things. It is unrealistic to win anything if you have no experience. The online gambling world offers tons of money-free games. This is a great chance to make your game better and take stock.

The algorithm of actions is something that is not typical for some players. Many ignore this for some reason. They don’t think about the consequences. The best advice in this situation is to watch the game carefully. Keep track of what is happening and make conclusions only during the process.

Everyone wants a change, right? Gambling lovers want some changes, too. These can be manifested in the change of a game or its variation, in our case — roulette. It's recommended not to get hung up on certain things. However, before you move on to something new, learn better this “new”. It will be easier for you, and you will not fail.

Free Casino Roulette

Finally, it is worth noting another equally common mistake. If you realize that the game is not going according to plan, then you should do the next. You should not immediately use all the strategies you know. Using all the strategies in one game can lead to outcomes that you didn’t expect earlier. Moreover, you can confuse yourself, which is the worst of all.

Related articles

FAQ

A large number of online casinos offer various deposit/no deposit bonuses. These bonuses may be available not only to new players. You need to browse the official casino website to find information about bonuses. It is worth noting that there are casinos that don’t offer this feature. So, you need to find this information immediately before starting to play. If you don't care about bonus offers, then don't worry about it.
You may find some information on the Web about the very best roulette strategy having been invented. Trust us, the best betting system is your experience. Only experience will help you to think through logical chains and adopt strategies. Of course, you can use any strategy, but this will not guarantee you success. Every casino game has spontaneity, and roulette is not an exception. One day luck may appear, and the next day it will say goodbye to you. Play any games that will not charge you money. One day, you’ll realize that you are ready to get into serious play — and then proceed.
Yes, of course. Such an opportunity has appeared recently. You can play not only on your phone but also on your tablet. It's worth noting that iPhone owners have a limited selection of games. Android users are provided with a wider range of options. We don’t know the exact reason for these limits, but we hope that the situation will level.
? Are there specific betting limits for online roulette?
Limits are everywhere, being individual for every particular casino. The most common limits are €41 on numbers and €125 on outside bets.
As we mentioned above, there are several types of roulette. Each player has the preferences of his own, but French roulette is probably the most popular variation. It is considered to be the best one. It gives you more chances of winning and getting the coveted money. Speaking about American roulette, it also has its advantages. For example, double-zero wheels are a good variation for a gambler to try.

Where to play?

  • Fastpay casino has a wide range of games, over 5000 games including roulette in their portfolio, the top gambling place on our site. Moreover, they will send the money super-fast (1-5 minutes).