- Qt Signals Slots Threads Example
- Qt Signal Slot Different Threads
- Qt Signal And Slots
- Qt Emit Signal From Thread
- Qt Signal Slot Different Thread Gages
- Qt Signal Slot Different Thread Sizes
Signals and slots are used for communication between objects. The signals and slots mechanism is a central feature of Qt and probably the part that differs most from the features provided by other frameworks. Signals and slots are made possible by Qt's meta-object system. QtCore.SIGNAL and QtCore.SLOT macros allow Python to interface with Qt signal and slot delivery mechanisms. This is the old way of using signals and slots. The example below uses the well known clicked signal from a QPushButton. The connect method has a non python-friendly syntax. It is necessary to inform the object, its signal (via macro. There are five ways to connect the signal slot in QT: Qt::AutoConnection The default connection method of the signal slot, if the signal and the slot are in the same thread, Qt::DirectConnection is automatically adopted, If the signal and the slot are not in the same thread, the Qt::QueuedConnection connection method will be automatically adopted.
This blog is part of a series of blogs explaining the internals of signals and slots.
In this article, we will explore the mechanisms powering the Qt queued connections.
Qt Signals Slots Threads Example
Summary from Part 1
In the first part, we saw that signalsare just simple functions, whose body is generated by moc. They are just calling
QMetaObject::activate, with an array of pointers to arguments on the stack.Here is the code of a signal, as generated by moc: (from part 1)
QMetaObject::activatewill then look in internal data structures to find out what are the slots connected to that signal.As seen in part 1, for each slot, the following code will be executed:
So in this blog post we will see what exactly happens in
queued_activateand other parts that were skipped for the
Qt Event Loop
QueuedConnection will post an event to the event loop to eventually be handled.
When posting an event (in
QCoreApplication::postEvent),the event will be pushed in a per-thread queue(
QThreadData::postEventList).The event queued is protected by a mutex, so there is no race conditions when threadspush events to another thread's event queue.
Once the event has been added to the queue, and if the receiver is living in another thread,we notify the event dispatcher of that thread by calling
QAbstractEventDispatcher::wakeUp.This will wake up the dispatcher if it was sleeping while waiting for more events.If the receiver is in the same thread, the event will be processed later, as the event loop iterates.
The event will be deleted right after being processed in the thread that processes it.
An event posted using a QueuedConnection is a
QMetaCallEvent. When processed, that event will call the slot the same way we call them for direct connections.All the information (slot to call, parameter values, ..) are stored inside the event.
Copying the parameters
argv coming from the signal is an array of pointers to the arguments. The problem is that these pointers point to the stack of the signal where the arguments are. Once the signal returns, they will not be valid anymore. So we'll have to copy the parameter values of the function on the heap. In order to do that, we just ask QMetaType. We have seen in the QMetaType article that
QMetaType::create has the ability to copy any type knowing it's QMetaType ID and a pointer to the type.
To know the QMetaType ID of a particular parameter, we will look in the QMetaObject, which contains the name of all the types. We will then be able to look up the particular type in the QMetaType database.
We can now put it all together and read through the code ofqueued_activate, which is called by
QMetaObject::activate to prepare a
Qt::QueuedConnection slot call.The code showed here has been slightly simplified and commented:
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Qt Signal Slot Different Threads
Upon reception of this event,
QObject::event will set the sender and call
QMetaCallEvent::placeMetaCall. That later function will dispatch just the same way as
QMetaObject::activate would do it for direct connections, as seen in Part 1
BlockingQueuedConnection is a mix between
QueuedConnection. Like with a
DirectConnection, the arguments can stay on the stack since the stack is on the thread thatis blocked. No need to copy the arguments.Like with a
QueuedConnection, an event is posted to the other thread's event loop. The event also containsa pointer to a
QSemaphore. The thread that delivers the event will release thesemaphore right after the slot has been called. Meanwhile, the thread that called the signal will acquirethe semaphore in order to wait until the event is processed.
Qt Signal And Slots
It is the destructor of QMetaCallEvent which will release the semaphore. This is good becausethe event will be deleted right after it is delivered (i.e. the slot has been called) but also whenthe event is not delivered (e.g. because the receiving object was deleted).
Qt Emit Signal From Thread
BlockingQueuedConnection can be useful to do thread communication when you want to invoke afunction in another thread and wait for the answer before it is finished. However, it must be donewith care.
The dangers of BlockingQueuedConnection
You must be careful in order to avoid deadlocks.
Obviously, if you connect two objects using
BlockingQueuedConnection living on the same thread,you will deadlock immediately. You are sending an event to the sender's own thread and then are locking thethread waiting for the event to be processed. Since the thread is blocked, the event will never beprocessed and the thread will be blocked forever. Qt detects this at run time and prints a warning,but does not attempt to fix the problem for you.It has been suggested that Qt could then just do a normal
DirectConnection if both objects are inthe same thread. But we choose not to because
BlockingQueuedConnection is something that can only beused if you know what you are doing: You must know from which thread to what other thread theevent will be sent.
The real danger is that you must keep your design such that if in your application, you do a
BlockingQueuedConnection from thread A to thread B, thread B must never wait for thread A, or you willhave a deadlock again.
When emitting the signal or calling
QMetaObject::invokeMethod(), you must not have any mutex lockedthat thread B might also try locking.
A problem will typically appear when you need to terminate a thread using a
BlockingQueuedConnection, for example in thispseudo code:
You cannot just call wait here because the child thread might have already emitted, or is about to emitthe signal that will wait for the parent thread, which won't go back to its event loop. All the thread cleanup information transfer must only happen withevents posted between threads, without using
wait(). A better way to do it would be:
The downside is that
MyOperation::cleanup() is now called asynchronously, which may complicate the design.
Qt Signal Slot Different Thread Gages
Qt Signal Slot Different Thread Sizes
This article should conclude the series. I hope these articles have demystified signals and slots,and that knowing a bit how this works under the hood will help you make better use of them in yourapplications.